;What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?; ; Frederick Douglass

About when was this speech given?
Before the Civil War; 1850s

What is the tone of the introduction?
Douglass begins the introduction by professing how nervous he is in order to draw the audience in and help them warm up to him. He also acts humble, and patriotic

Why does Douglass consistently use the pronoun “your” in this speech?
He is creating the separation between the slave and the free whites

The tone of the speech changes by the end of the introduction. How does Douglass seem to become? What emotions? Why?
He becomes angrier as the speech continues. He is reaching his point about slavery being the thing that makes the 4th hypocritical, and as he does so, he grows angrier and more impassioned

What does Douglass think about slavery’s future in North America?
If slavery were to continue it would be the death of America – would lead to war – this is where we see the dried up river analogy

In some ways, the first part of the speech is a traditional patriotic speech. Identify these elements.
He talks about America being a great nation, and our Founding Fathers being wonderful people

Douglass uses religious language in discussing Independence. Why do you think he does so?
He wants to use any means to convince people to end slavery. Including using the example of Joseph and his brothers, as well as the Israelites being slaves in Egypt

What is his opinion of the American Founders? What characteristics does he praise about them?
He praises them because they were great men. He thinks they were extremely intelligent, and the thinks it is admirable that when they realized they were oppressed by Britain, they rebelled

In the second part of the speech, Douglass turns to the present and his own feelings about the 4th of July celebration. What are these?
It is hypocritical that a nation built on slavery can celebrate a day of freedom

How does he show that everyone in America, North and South, views enslaved Africans as human beings
There are laws concerning slaves. If they were not humans, there would be no need to create laws about them.

What feelings is he appealing to in his audience in this section?
Douglass appeals to both logic and emotion in his readers

Frederick Douglass
slave who escaped to the north

Frederick Douglass
fought against Mr. Covey

Frederick Douglass
taught himself to read and write

Frederick Douglass
realized education was the path to freedom

Frederick Douglass
became a ship caulker

Colonel Edward Lloyd
Owned the Great House Farm

Colonel Edward Lloyd
used tar on the fence around his garden to keep slaves out

Colonel Edward Lloyd
used to ask slaves what they thought of their master, then sell those who answered in a way he didn’t like

Captain Thomas Auld
Lucretia Auld’s husband; became a Christian and then became even more cruel to his slaves

Captain Anthony
Douglass’s first master – most likely his father

Hugh Auld
Douglass’s master in Baltimore

Hugh Auld
Forbids his wife to teach Douglass to read

Hugh Auld
Unknowingly inspires Douglass to become educated

Hugh Auld
says that education would ruin the best slave

Sophia Auld
was a working woman who had never owned slaves

Sophia Auld
taught Douglass his ABC’s

Sophia Auld
grew cruel under the influence of slavery

Sophia Auld
serves as a warning about how slavery is harmful to whites

Edward Covey
a breaker of slaves

Edward Covey
Douglass fought him

Edward Covey
the “snake”

ran into the river to avoid being punished

was shot and killed when he refused to listen

Aunt Hester
was whipped by Captain Anthony for sneaking away to Ned

Aunt Hester
the first whipping Douglass ever witnessed

Sandy Jenkins
gives Douglass a root to keep him safe from Mr. Covey

Sandy Jenkins
most likely who told about Douglass’s first escape attempt

In what state did Douglass spend most of his years as a slave?

How did Douglass continue to learn to read?
He bribed and tricked little white boys

Why did Douglass go to prison?
Under suspicion of planning to escape

How did Douglass and his fellow slave friends plan to escape slavery?
By boat with forged notes of passage

In Baltimore, what does Douglass learn is “the pathway from slavery to freedom”?

Who was the first person to help Douglass with money and shelter after his escape?
Nathan Johnson

Douglass is able to successfully escape by not arousing suspicion. How does he do this?
Acting happy and giving all his money to his master