Wildlife capstone quiz: Grasslands and vegetation

What are 6 things grassland birds use grasslands for?
Courtship, Nesting, Foraging, Rearing young, roosting, loafing
What are the 3 birds that require the most grassland space?
Northern harrier, upland sandpiper, short eared owl
What is grassland community 1?
Cultivated agricultural habitats before crop canopy development
What is in grassland bird community 1?
Horned lark, killdeer, vesper sparrow
What is grassland bird community 2?
Uncultivated habitats with short, sparse vegetation, lots of bare soil, and some shrub cover
What is in grassland bird community 2?
Vesper sparrows, grasshopper sparrows, field sparrow, lark sparrow
What is grassland bird community 3?
Habitats with medium vegetation height, such as hayfields, and lightly grazed pastures
What is in grassland community 3?
Savannah sparrow, bobolink, dickcissel, red winged blackbird, eastern meadowlark
What is grassland bird community 4?
Tall, dense vegetation characteristic of sedge meadows and warm season grasslands.
What is in graassland bird community 4?
sedge wren, common yellowthroat, red winged blackbird, henslow’s sparrow
How big is the minimum size for grasslands?
40 acres
What size and amount should woody cover be kept at?
Woody cover over three feet tall should be kept to a maximum of 5%
What is used to measure high density vegetation?
Robel pole
What is a robel pole and how do you use it?
Marked in 5-cm increments
An observer views the pole from a distance of 4 meters and from the top of a second pole 1 meter tall.
The lowest visible part of the marked pole is recorded to the nearest 5 centimeters.
What is used to measure cover?
Daubenmire frame
What is a Daubenmire frame, and how do you use one?
A 20-cm X 50-cm quadrat
Lengths on the frame are painted different colors to facilitate cover estimation
Bare ground
Ratio of grass to forb cover
How big is course woody debris?
at least 6 inches in diameter and 8 feet long
How frequent should course woody debris be?
At least 12 fallen trees, large branches, or logs/acre
What two groups require woody debris?
Salamanders and small mammals
What is decay class 1?
Least decomposed, leaves still attached, intact bark, fine branches, and twigs
What is decay class 2?
Starting to decompose, leaves and fine twigs absent, bark loose
What is decay class 3?
Few branches remain, bark falls off in large patches, outer wood crushed by hand
What is decay class 4?
Conform to ground shape, branches are short stubs, bark in piles beside log
What is decay class 5?
Mostly decomposed, incorporated into the forest floor, wood is very soft and bark is gone
What is the 10 year fall rate?