Wildlife Capstone quiz

What is a Snag?
A standing dead tree at least 6 inches in diameter at breast height (dbh [4.5 feet above ground]) and at least 10 feet tall.
What is a cavity tree?
A living tree at least 6 inches dbh, at least 10 feet tall, and has at least one cavity.
Cavity – a hole, excavated or natural, with an entrance at least 2 inches in diameter.
What percent of forest birds are cavity nesters?
40%
What are the five steps that cause tree cavities?
Bark is broken, fungal spores take root, fungi release enzyme to break down cellulose, insects invade,birds go after insect
What are hard snags?
Hard snags are standing dead hardwood trees such as oak and hickory
What are soft snags?
Soft snags are standing dead softwood trees such as aspen
What is Snag Decay Class 1?
Recently died, little decay, majority of bark remains, branches intact as well as top
What is Snag Decay Class 2?
Show some evidence of decay
Some bark is peeling and some has been lost
Some branches have been lost
Top sometimes missing
What is Snag Decay Class 3?
Bark missing
Most branches gone
Top gone
What is Snag Decay Class 4?
Fallen
How old is old growth?
120 years
How old is second growth?
60 – 80 years old
How many less cavities does second growth have than old?
Roughly half the amount of old
What are good indicators of heart rot?
Fungal conks
Wounds or scars
Large amounts of dead wood (branches and tops)
Cavities
How high should trees be cut to make snags?
14 feet +
How far out should branches be cut to make snags?
2 feet from the trunk
What are the dimensions for bat roosting cuts?
8 inches deep and 2 inches wide
What are some qualitative measurements for habitats?
Nutrition composition, digestibility, palatability
What are quantitative measurements?
Species composition
Species abundance
Species frequency
Species density
Basal area
Foliage projection
Canopy coverage
Cover – horizontal and vertical
Visual obstruction
Herbaceous forage production
What are the levels of abundance?
Rare
Scarce
Infrequent
Common
Abundant
What is density for vegetation sampling?
The proportion of ground covered by vegetation
Where are plants measured for basal coverage?
Grass and forb stems are measured 1 inch above the ground
Shrub and tree stems are measured 4.5 feet above the ground
What are
How much of a silhoute must be covered for distance measurements?
90%
What are the three ways of weighing plant matter?
Green weight – freshly cut plants
Air-dry weight – dried in shade
Oven-dry weight – dried in oven at 200oF
What are public use priorities?
Hunting
Fishing
Wildlife Observation
Photography
Interpretation
Environmental Education
On middle Island, what was the desired deer population
70 per sq/mile
How much of the oringal floodplain forests remain?
<35%
What are the seven steps for adaptive management?
Assess problem, Design, implement, monitor, evaluate, adjust
What are some key refuge resources?
Migratory Birds
Endangered Species
Tree-roosting Bats
Freshwater Mussels
Inter-jurisdictional Fish
What are 4 key refuge habitats?
Floodplain forest, riverine open water, floodplain emergent wetlands, old fields