Wildlife Exam 1

Client Model VS Stakeholder Model
Client: Sportsmen paid & received services from managers.
Stakeholder: identify all stakeholders and include in decision making.
Active VS Inactive Management
Active: Manipulates population directly.
Inactive: Minimizes external influence and instead manages people and interactions.
Four Basic Types of Management
Increase population. Decrease population. Harvest population at sustainable yield. Simply monitor.
Gifford Pichot
Coined the term conservation and promoted sustainable yield.
Ding Darling
Cartoon artist who depicted pollution and habitat loss. 1876-1962
Rachel Carson
Vastly popular among the public Silent Spring but that ended DDT use and called for regulation of chemicals.
North American Model of Wildlife Conservation
Wildlife is public and international resource managed by policies based on sound science.
Roosevelt Doctrine
All outdoor resources are one integral whole. Conservation through wise use is a public responsibility. Science is the proper tool for discharging that responsibility.
Impacts Management Approach
Attempts to shape value created by human-wildlife interactions through managing coupled systems.
Expert Authority Approach
Top-down in which wildlife managers make decisions and take actions unilateral.
Passive-Receptive Approach
Wildlife managers welcome stakeholders input but do not seek it systematically.
Intermediary Approach
Encourages two-way communication between individual stakeholders groups and the wildlife managers.
Inquisitive Approach
Managers actively seek information about stakeholders to inform anticipated management.
Transactional Approach
Stakeholders describe their stakes to each other rather than managers and collaborate to rank them.
Comanagerial Approach
Conservation agencies engage other government agencues, NGOs and local communities and share responsibility and decision making.
Social Sciences
Psychology, economics, and sociology.
Wildlife Acceptance Capacity
There is some maximum wildlife population level in an area that is acceptable to people.
Conceptual Learning
Searching for new objectives and new ways of defining the problem.
Technical Learning
Searching for new policies and actions to accomplish existing objectives.
Social Learning
Results from relationships and the quality of dialogue between partners, stakeholders, and managers.
BIDE
Births, Immagration, Deaths, and Emigration used to determine abundance.
Lambda
Represents geometric growth rate or proportional change in abundance over a year. Calculated by abundance this year divided by abundance next year.
Source-sink Metapopulation
Assumes that areas with little to no harvest will serve as sources for overall metapopulation, supplying emigrants to sink areas that are more heavily harvested.
Ecological Traps
When formerly reliable cues of ideal habitat occur in unsuitable habitat areas. Fence perch spots in a regularly mowed field.
Avian Cholera
Caused by bacteria P. Multocida from farming turkeys and chickens and DDT suppressing immune systems.
Brucellosis
Caused by bacteria Brucella abortus and dense populations.
Distemper
Caused by morbillivirus and dense populations.
Brain Worm
Caused by ingesting snails that have ingested deer poop.
Pneumonia
Contracted from proximity to domestic sheep.
Sea Otter Disease
Cause by protozoal and bacterial infections occurring do to pollution.
One Health
We need to seek and implement optimal solutions to health problems that maximize benefits to human health, animal health, and environmental health, and sustainability.
Thermal Neutral Zone
An endotherms temperature tolerance range.
Plant Secondary Metabolites
Production of products that aid in growth and development that are not required for the plant to survive.
Body Condition Indices
Body mass, total fat, and protein level.
Niche and Niche Breadth
The resource allotted to an population and how they manage it. Breadth are the variety of resources or habits used by a species.
Cover
Thermal, predatory, survival, breeding.
Space
Connectivity to other areas, home range. Etc.
Proximate VS Ultimate Cause
Proximate is what seems most apparent, Ultimate is the true underlying cause.
Constituents of Food
Energy, water, minerals, and vitamins.
Energy
Essential to function. Consists of fat, carbohydrates, and protien.
Water
Free (in streams etc), Preformed (in fruit), or metabolic (byproduct of food breakdown).
Minerals
Macroelements ( calcium, sodium, etc) and microelements (iron, zinc, etc). acquired through food, soil (geophagy), and bones.
Vitamins
Minute amounts that can’t be synthesized by animals. Fat soluble (A,D,E) stored in body. Water soluble ( B,C ) need constant replenishment from food.
Limitations on Food Intake
Behavioral (use some to store), morphological/physiological (can only eat so much), and environmental (only so much available).
Maximize Food Consumption
Morphologically (larger, multiple stomachs) and behavioral (coprophagy, re-eating poop!!)
Magna Carta
First decree that wild animal resources were public and to be tended by the government. As apposed to owned by whose ever land they were on.
Era of Abundance
1600-1849 Seemingly unlimited resources and animals. Had some closed seasons but heavy west ward expansion and few regulations.
Era of Exploitation
1850-1899 Increased mobility and technology allowed for more efficient harvest. Many extinctions, beginning of regulation through game wardens and licenses.
Era of Protection
1900-1922 Actually government legislation to protect began. Lacey Act, Migratory bird treaty, and first refugee ever on pelican island.
Era of Game Management
1930-1965 Aldo Leopold push for game based management of wildlife. Federal duck stamp forcing hunters to pay to hunt and regulation. Pittman-Roberston Act.
Era of Environmental Management
1965-Present Increased wealth and leisure time of public so can get involved. Concern for non-hunting species. More science and environmental awareness.
Wildlife
A potentially broad term that mainly includes all vertebrates but some invertebrates and plants.
Conservation
Effort towards sustainable interactions between humans and wildlife.
Exponential Growth VS Logistic Growth
Exponential increase infinitely and is not sustainable. Logistic plateus eventually as carry capacity is met.
Biological Carrying Capacity
Maximum number of individuals in a habitat that can be supported in good health for extended time.
Density Independent Factors
Exert their influence no matter what population numbers. Weather, humans.
Density Dependent Factors
Vary in effect depending on population numbers. Food, disease, stress.
Cultural Carrying Capacity
Maximum number of individuals that can coexist with humans. Varies based on economics and social values.
The Lacey Act
Prohibits transport of game across state lines reducing exploitation loop holes.
Migratory Bird Treaty Act
Prohibited hunting times seasons and numbers to reduce loss. Kept states from making conflicting laws about it and afforded protection to all non game species.
Pittman-Robertson Act
Public funding for government wildlife regulation to come from hunters through taxes and licenses.
National Environmental Policy Act
Made every project that involves federal funds mist be assessed for environmental impact.
Endangered Species Act
Protected non game species and their ecosystems.
Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species
An international agreement that there will be restricted trade of certain species between nations.
Clean Water Act Section 404
Restricted waste disposal in general and required permit from army to develop on any aquatic habitat.
Food Security Act
Subsidized farmers to turn their land into wildlife habitats.