Wildlife Exam 3

Urban Habitat Mortality
Low: No hunting/trapping, less large predators.
High: More cats/dogs, roadkill/pest control.
Urban Habitat Trends
More invasives, less natives.
Low number of species.
High total biomass.
High density.
Favors generalist diets/foraging methods.
Wildlife Landscaping
• Food, water, shelter, space.
• Install in open space or new construction.
• Structures (brush, snags, ponds)
• Plants logical to target species.
• Restrict pets cause predation.
Cultural Carrying Capacity
Too much of a species for people to tolerate. Consists of Nuisance Species with high contact rate with humans.
Nuisance Species
Any abundant animal that causes damage, safety hazards, lowered aesthetics, and $.
Pest Control Acceptability
Public opinion of nuisance species control important to maintain support. Most acceptable are non lethal, least painful, and cheapest.
Non-Lethal Control Techniques
Reimbursement, husbandry, barriers, repellents, habitat modifications, restore predators/disease, sterilization, trap/relocate.
Harvest
Any removal from the wild. Dead or alive, illegal or not, agricultural or not. Vague.
Hunting and Trapping
Legal harvest of wildlife by individual citizens. Not for sale.
Commercial Harvesting
Legal harvest intended for sale.
Poaching
Illegal killing out of season, without permit, restricted species, etc.
Hunting: Consumption
People hunt as a source of food either recreational or as a necessity. But also for clothing for fashion or again necessity.
Hunting: Economics
Individual sale for one person to make a living, but also to protect livestock/control pests that cost money.
Hunting: Recreation/Social
People enjoy hunting for sport and as a hobby. People bond over it and for communities around it.
Hunting: Ecological Management
Hunting a tool to combat overpopulation. Also hunt predators of endangered species.
Hunting: Financial/Political
Money to be made off hunting privately, but also good for government to work with hunters to make money to supply management funds through permits.
Hunting Controversies
Unnecessary, guns involved, inhumane methods, prideful, morally wrong, not experienced by most of population.
Hunting Management
Biological: Monitor populations and sustainability.
Socially: Law enforcement, open discussion, get money, include differing values.
Exotic Species
A species not native to an area that is introduced by humans.
Sources of Invasives
Accidents, aesthetics, economic benefits, sport, endangered, ignorance.
Invasive Damages
Economic (crop loss, etc), competition with natives, predation, and hybridzation.
Successful Exotics
Fast reproduction rates, high birth numbers, broad niche, low territoriality.
Area has abundant resources, similar environment, and a niche vacancy it can fill (no top predator).
International Problems
Habitat destruction, water scarcity, chemicals and herbicides, and illegal trade/traffic.
Contributing Factors to International Problems
War/political crisis, high populations, poor economies, greedy business/consumers, corrupt regulators.
Illegal Wildlife Products
Meat, medicines, fashion, tools, pets, cultural things, sport hunting.
Illegal Wildlife Product Producers
Poor locals, desperate to make easy money.
Illegal Wildlife Product Consumera
Rich, status symbol, cultural medicines, shitty people.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
Known as CITES, a voluntary agreement among nations regulating the harvest and trade of endangered species. Consists of three Appendices classifying species trade allowances.
CITES Appendix I
Highest regulation. Endangered no matter what country. Permits needed for import/export and no commercial sale allowed.
CITES Appendix II
Species considered threatened in all countries. Need permit to export, sale possible.
CITES Appendix III
Least regulated, considered threatened by exporting country and exporting country regulates those exports.
Delisting Species Process
Must have scientific evidence species can withstand exploitation. Have well-documented population trends showing this. Produce comprehensive trade analysis showing sustainability.
Blanket-Listing
Practice of listing all species closely related to the actually endangered one. Protects against difficulties distinguishing endangered from not endangered and dominoes effect of poaching species that look like endangereds.
CITES Flaws
• Enforcement is not strong enough.
• Not all nations recognize regulations.
• Appendix II usually pushed though.
• Trade still occurs.
• Conflicts between countries and what should be regulated.
Value of Protected Areas
Habitat preservation, controlled management, research opportunity, public relations, and financial gain.
Protected Area Problems
Genetic loss, overpopulation, direct and indirect human problems.
Protected Area Types
Strict reserve, national park, natural monument, habitat/species management, protected area, and managed resource protected area.
Park Establishment Guidelines
Legal protection, physical protection, at least 4 sq. Miles, prohibit/regulate exploitation.
Park Priorities
Diversity, distinctiveness, prevent species endangerment, and utility by locals/wildlife/researchers.
Park Size vs Frequency
The bugger the park, the less there are of that size. Unless it’s less than 10 Sq km. Most in 10-29 sq km range.
Gap Analysis
Layering different mapping (vegetation, developments, political lines, etc) to identify potential protection areas.
Designing Protected Areas
Size, configuration (divided, linear vs round, close vs far, etc.), and shape.
Biosphere Reserves
Part of UNESCO, effort to save all habitat, plant, and animal types from extinction. Representativeness more important than uniqueness.
Realms
Broad classification of habitat types based on geography, climates, species.
Biomes
Areas of similar climate/species associations. Same types in different areas of the world.
Biogeographical Provinces
Realms divided up into 193 flora and fauna regions.
Park Challenges
Some types have no available sites. Inadequate protection, maintenance, endangered species vs maximizing diversity, need for more research, and money.
Park Conservation Problems
Agriculture, forest fires, overgrazing, logging by outside companies, poaching, unsustainable firewood use.
Park Administration Tasks
Know 7 of these: Ethnoecology, enviro education, ecodevelopment, forestry, soils/watersheds, flora, fauna, cartography/photography, informatio/data processing, publicity, public relations, field station management, administration.
Original Purpose of Zoos
Entertainment of rich people, making money main goal.
Past Zoo Problems
Shitty facilities, made animals perform, not educational or wrong information, facilities not based on good science.
Zoo Contributions
Refugia (recuperation space, propagules (facilitated repopulation), reinforce natural pops, maintain sperm/egg repositories, conduct research, and educate public.
Zoo Problems
Few endangered species in zoos, depend directly on money (upkeep, facilities, conservation actions), limited space, genetics.
Zoo Genetics Problems
Founder effects of small populations, must have detailed breeding plan, age and sex compositions need adjusting, must simulate genetic selection, and teach skills for releasing to wild.
Extinction Rates
Unprecedented extinction rates currently and projected more. Extinction happen, but not naturally at this rate. 6th mass extinction of our time.
Causes of Endangerment
Habitat destruction (pollution, invasives, etc.), exploitation (harvesting wildlife, commercial industry).
Endangered Species Characteristics
Narrow geographical range, habitat specialists, small population size, clumped distribution, low reproductive rates.
Protectors of Endangereds
Federal Government through laws and treaties.
State governments and agencies.
Private conservation groups.
Endangered Classification Criteria
Population size, vulnerability, recovery potential, species uniqueness.
Species Protection and Recovery Methods
Single species approach is standard through captive propagation.
Ecosystem approach manages whole reserve they inhabit.
Umbrella species uses one species to justify indirectly protect others around it.
Tale of Black-Footed Ferrets
Preyed of prairie dogs, mass prairie dog kill in 1800s, ferrets thought extinct, till some found in the 80s, then they had diseases, management ensued, trying to reintroduce more from captivity.
Climate Change Primary Effects
Stranding populations, life-stage habitat loss, altered biological events from temp changes.
Climate Change Secondary Effects
Increased stress, disrupted predator-prey dynamics, opportunistic invasives more successful.
Humans and Climate Change
Habitat conversion for us, increased pollution and land use, induced invasives movement.
Peary Caribou and Climate Change
Habitat shifts north and longer growing thawed season for food. BUT more snow likely which means harsher snow cover of food over winter meaning less for to survive.
Conservation by Consumption
Regulated hunting in concert with restoration efforts that was very successful in North america.
Economic Impact of US Hunters
They spent $24.7 billion which results in a positive impact by $66.7 billion and supports almost 660,000 jobs.
Public Relations in Hunting
Public needs to know not all hunting bad. It’s a necessary part of keeping populations controlled, people interested, and making money.
Turkey Nest Depredation
Wet weather creates humid, breezy, temp inversion by ground creates ideal olfaction conditions which increases success amongst turkey prey.
Trophic Mismatch
When food availability and habitat resources are no longer in sync with when wildlife need them. Birds that are vital prey migrate too early or too late to be food for some dependent species.
Accidental Bird Death
In the billions and most caused by crashing into windows. More killed accidentally thanot hunted by man.
Abiotic Filters in Restoration
Climate (rainfall, temps), substrate (toxicity, soil water), and landscape (patch size, previous use, isolation, etc.)
Museum Records and Restoration
Natural history collections show historic ranges and genetic sampling but degree of ignorance in early studies must be accounted for.
Stepping-Stone Corridors
When full corridors not needed/possible, small patches of resting areas lead to another large habitat.
Main GHGs
Greenhouse gasses, most common are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and halocarbons. These have biggest impact on climate change.
Climate Change and Bird Migration
Shifts in arrival dates for breeding may occur, shortening distances and some will shift around. Longer migrations cued by photo period changes may not know to shift and will perish.
Climate Change and Range Shifts
Species will move their distributions if they can or die. Changes in community composition imminent.
Bioclimatic Envelope Modeling
Attempt to define climatic conditions that best describe species range limits and then shows how they’ll react to changing climate.
Nonessential Experimental Population
A compromise to address local concerns about wolf reintroduction to Yellowstone, title permitted landowners to kill wolves seen eating livestock, but still protected eslewhere.