Winston implies that Julia has no interest in what is really going on around her when he mentions she is rebellious from the “waist down.” She is not aware and/or merely does not care. I believe what Winston is saying is that her act of rebellion is through sex/sexuality. Winston himself questions Big Brother and the party. He does not believe that it is right that their past is being erased and that no one is questioning it. However, Julia does not hold the same perspective. She believes that as long as she is illustrating proper behaviour while having sex, it should be fine. Physically, Julia is opposing the rules set in place involving sexual interaction, but more so mentally, she is still part of that society. Her sexual deviance is what Winston refers to when claiming that Julia is a rebel from the “waist down”. This is illustrated when Winston claims she’s “only a rebel from the waist downwards” (163), because for her, Julia believes in freedom from societal norms and liberation of her true self through sex. Winston, on the other hand, also believes in the more political stand point of what their society deems wrong, questionable and abnormal. Winston is also somewhat rebellious from the “waist down” since his act of revolting also involves sex, but not limited to. He also believes in the injustice of ruling by Big Brother and the Party. The party oppresses the population from having sex as it is forbidden. However, it appears it is a way for them to apply and implement their power over their citizens- creating an equitable power structure. By not allowing their citizens to engage in sexual activities, the people themselves have no choice but to showcase such discipline while following those rules and guidelines. It is also explained that “the sex impulse was dangerous to the party, and the party had turned it into account” (140). Perhaps this was because sexual freedom meant that the party would lose control of its citizens as they would engage in their own physical needs and desires. This illustrates the use of pent up frustration and emotions that are being redirected towards the enemies of Big Brother. The party is using this as a subtle way of having control of the people’s emotions. However, the parties are not aware of the people still have sex. As Julia mentions, she has had many partners before Winston yet they have not been caught. The statement Winston applies to Julia can actually be applied to many people; especially the ones Julia slept with. Julia’s previous lovers did not go against the party or commit any thoughtcrime- that we know of, which also insinuates that there were many people were rebelling from the “waist down.” Winston not implies that Julia is a rebels through sex, he also expresses how he visualizes Julia simply as someone he can sleep with. Throughout 1984, women are not seen as highly important people. Instead, they were expected to stay at home and take care of their husbands and children. This is an interesting societal norm as Canada had very similar views of women in the early 1900s and it wasn’t until the 1920s that the women’s liberation movement won their right to vote. Additionally, women were not even recognized as people until well into the 1900s. Women, as seen through space and time, have always faced various forms of over-lapping oppressions, and the most effective way of controlling the female population is to control how they can live their lives and by revoking their agency. Restricting sex is a great illustration of how the party uses the traditional family image which represents the women greatly. The younger unmarried females play a role in groups such as Julia, who was a part of the anti-sex group. Although she displayed that, she didn’t abide by the rules. She is known for having sex multiple times which suggests that women are merely good for sex. Even though sex is forbidden, women are described provocatively especially when Winston begins to describe Julia. He himself, does not like her at first just because he instantly feels drawn to her and has sexual desires for her. His first reaction suggests that Winston only sees Julia as merely a sex object which is also what their society subtly demonstrates. Although Winston informs Julia that she is only rebellious through sex, his partial truth is also contradicting towards how he himself sees her. Winston at the beginning of the book desires Julia frequently and has sexual thoughts about her which he does not end up keeping under control. Winston does want to do something about the lack of fairness being forced upon their people but Julia simply thinks his ideas are stupid. Their different perspectives display the power behind sexual desires, of which even the party cannot fully control. As much as the Party tries to persuade the people to take out their anger and irritation on the enemies, they still do not have full control over that aspect. Not only is the lack of sex emphasized in the society, the insignificance of women is also highlighted through their cultural norms. It is interesting how the Party thinks so little of women yet depends on women for population control. The Party cannot continue to govern if they are aging and don’t have anyone to follow lead. The Party needs women to give birth to the next generation of civilians. It is important to note that women should not be used as machines merely for sex and population, which in this case is exactly how they are being portrayed. Not only is power demonstrated through the strict and disciplined, but also through the genders and their roles.