Witnessing Intimate Partner Violence

A diagnostic interview was given to the participants in each of them disclosing their personal experiences in PIP surroundings. Results showed that there were no moderator effects of either sex or age. Research Question: No specific research questions or hypotheses were raised, but the general statement can concur in stating that exposure to PIP has a negative impact in cognitive development and social functioning in children. Nonetheless, it remains unclear of how within each identified category of being the victim, being the witness, or being involved actually affect children’s psychopathology.Data Collection Procedure: One Hundred and sixty six Spanish school age children were interviewed for this study in disclosing their personal thoughts as well as attitudes in how they perceive their mother’s being treated in the environment of domestic violence. Measurement scales were assessed in the level of occurrence to measure the scale of PIP among children’s mothers. These scales were based on a questionnaire format in which both the children and the mothers of the children answer questions accordingly regarding PIP.

Results: The results presented and showed that regardless of their age, sexes, and their level of exposure to PIP, are equally at risk of experiencing psychological problems, and should therefore be considered similarly with regard to detection, prevention, and treatment. The results also revealed that PIP can occur across all cultural and ethnic lines and no one is excluded of being a victim, witness, or involved person in concerning intimate partner violence.Feeble, M. , Sullivan, C. M. , & Bye, D.

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(2011). The Impact of Neighborhood Factors on the Well-being of Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence over Time. Journal of Family Psychology, 24, 197-207. Research Problem: This examined study researched the effects of PIP and how other contributing external factors of high crime areas of violence can deeply affect the overall well- being and mental health off person that is a survivor of PIP.

The current study included 160 female survivors of PIP over time, all of whom participated in a larger research study designed to test the efficacy of an experimental family-based advocacy intervention for abused women and their children. Several criteria were used to determine women’s eligibility for this study. All women had to have been physically victimized by a current or ex-intimate partner in the 4 months preceding their involvement in the study; had to agree to be interviewed six times over 2 years and to be randomly assigned to an experimental advocacy intervention group.The following questions were used to assess within women changes of change over time: these research questions were: within-woman increases in physical and psychological abuse will accompanied by increases in depression and decreases in quality of life over time, within women within-woman increases in perceived spinsterhood disorder will be accompanied by increases in depression and decreases in quality of life over time, over and above the impact of abuse, and will the relationship between changes in perceived neighborhood disorder and psychological well-being over time will be partially mediated by changes in neighborhood fear of visualization, over and above the impact of abuse over time.Data Collection Procedure: Of the 160 involved participants, each agreed and signed informed consents and participated in an initial baseline interview.

Once completed formal interviews were inducted and represented an array of participants of Hispanic, White, and African- American women. Socio-Economic factors were also involved and implemented in this study as well the survey represented the majority of low-income women. The women were also either legally separated, divorced, and were never married to their assailant.

The 24 item assessment questionnaire was conducted based on their previous experiences of PIP. The assessment identified as the 24 item index of abuse. This assessment measures extent to which women experienced emotional or psychological abuse from their partners.The assessment was based on a Women’s responses were based on a 4-point Liker-type scale, with 1 = Never and 4 = Often. To assess physical abuse, a modified version using a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale. The 24 item scale assessed the frequency with which a variety of physically abusive tactics were used against participants by their partners or ex- partners during the months preceding each interview. Questions were asked on a Liker Scale form 1 meaning never and 7 to frequently in answering questions of how often did various forms abuse occurred between them and their partners. The 20- item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale was used to detect current depressive symptoms and overall distress among the study participants.

Women were asked to report the frequency they experienced a range of depressive symptoms during the week prior to each interview. A Liker type scale was used to measure depressive symptoms form a scale from 1 to 4 with one being never and 4 being highly likely. A Subjective global SOL was assessed using nine items derived from the Perceived Quality of Life Scale this scale was measured to measure the linings of participants of how they specifically feel about their life. The 7 point Liker type scale questioned various concerns about how do the participant view their life now, how positive or negative they feel their life is going, and how do they spend their spare time.Results: The results revealed that impacts displayed in this study showed a depression, external influences such high stressed and high crime neighborhoods plays an significant part in the overall well-being amongst victims.

Notably, depression was not directly predicted by perceptions of neighborhood disorder, despite support for his association in prior research. The quality of life revealed no significance in the subject of abuse and quality of life correlations. And Community Violence on Children’s Depression Trajectories: Examining the Interactions of Violence Exposure, Family Social Support, and Gender.

Journal of Family psychology, 24(2), 197-207.Research Problem: The current study sought to contribute to the emergent literature in this area by examining the relationships between witnessing PIP, family social support, gender, and depression within a diverse, longitudinal sample of school-aged children from implies in which PIP had recently occurred. The purpose of the study was to research how participants, which consisted of 160 women and their children attributes can be affected when each are in an PIP environment.

The study was conducted from previous research concerning this crucial subject. Research Question: The approach to this study was an analytic approach in interviewing children, and observing collecting data and interpreting results.The current study can contribute to this emergent literature on gender differences in depression during late childhood mongo children who have witnessed PIP. The following questions were explored, using data collected for 2 years across six time points: What are the effects of witnessing PIP and, initially and over time, on both the children’s initial depression and their depression trajectories? Do family social support and/or gender moderate the relationship between witnessing PIP and depression, and CAVE and depression, both initially and over time? Does initial violence exposure moderate the effects of change in violence exposure on depression over time? And, If yes, how so?Data Collection Procedure: A Liker Type Scale of Child Report of Witnessing PIP assessment was used for both children and their families to assess their experiences with PIP. Participants’ exposure to their mothers’ abuse by her male partner during the previous 4 months was assessed using a 4-item Child Report of Witnessing PIP scale The children were asked if they had seen or heard him call her names or say things to make her feel bad, yell at her, threaten to hurt her, or physically hurt her. Participants reported the frequency of their exposure to each item using a 7-pointillist-type scale ranging from 1 to 7. One representing never to 7 representing always.Results: The children’s average level of witnessing PIP, and depression were at their highest levels; each reporting at 93% reporting.

There were also significant within-person effects of change in violence over time. On average, change in children’s was positively associated with depression over time. Results also revealed that children who experienced higher witnessing had higher levels of depression over time than children who experienced lower initial levels, irrespective of change in witnessing PIP. Extralegal, A. , & Oppenheim, L. 2002). Jumping to Awareness of Conflict between Self-Representations and its Relation to Psychological Well Being.International The purpose of this study is to examine how children between the ages of 8-18 handle conflicts between self-descriptors within one self-concept.

The study also showed how such conflicts were related to psychological wellbeing, and how an effect of age on awareness interacted with the relation between conflict and wellbeing. The study highlights how one view their own individual self-concept and how will it contribute to the likelihood of conflict with peers. Research Question: The research proposed in this research study is based on a Liker-Scale type of using self-perception questions regarding conflict of external factors. Questions were assessed regarding self -appraisal and reflective appraisal.

Data Collection Procedure: Each participant was individually interviewed in two sessions, varying from a few hours to maximally 1 week apart. The first session served to elicit the individually relevant representations or “constructs” needed for the Repertory Grid procedure and the rating of conflicts. On the basis of these representations, a Repertory Grid atria and a triangular matrix in which potential conflicts could be indicated were constructed a priority. Results: A positive correlation was displayed between children of the identified participants. Results showed that a sudden Jump in awareness of discrepancies within a concept of the selfвЂ?be it the real self-concept, the ideal self-concept, appraisals or ideals of parents or peersвЂ?occurs between age of and 14.Irrespective of this Jump in the number of discrepancies, discrepancies of which children and adolescents are aware are associated with extroversion if these discrepancies are located within the real elf-concept. However, they appear to instigate contraction around the inner self if the conflicts are experienced in the expectations of a significant otherвЂ?a parent or best friend.

Moreover, adolescents appear to react to the awareness of such conflicts in the expectation of a significant other with mental defensiveness. Children, on the other hand appear to react at a primarily behavioral level, withdrawing into their selves. Finally, whereas adolescent reactions appear to be primarily related to the ideals that others may hold for them, children are most sensitive to appraisals in the here and now.