World Cultures Chapter One: Meaning to Culture

Culture
All the things that make up a person’s entire way of life
7 elements of culture
social organization, customs and traditions, language, arts and literature, religion, forms of government, economic systems
social organization

meant to help the people of a culture work together to meet their basic needs

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Example: family patterns, higher authority, and social classes

family pattern
either nuclear or extended family dominated in a culture
Nuclear family
includes a wife, husband, and children; usually live in cities
extended family
includes several generations living in one household; usually live in a farming culture
higher authority
decides which gender is dominant in a culture
patriarchal
men are dominant authority
matriarchal
women and men share equal power
social classes
give order of status ranked by money, occupation, education, and ancestory
What is the cornerstone of a culture
Language
What are the products of human imagination
Arts and literature
What are arts and literature roles in a culture
Teach us about our cultural values
Encourage people to feel proud of their customs
Give them a sense of belonging
What are the two roles of a religion
answers questions about the meaning and purpose of life
Supports the values that the group finds important
What is monotheism
The worship of one god
What is polytheism
The worship of more than one God
What are the five major world religions
Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam
What is the purpose of an economic system
To moniter limited resources to satisfy people’s wants and needs
What are the three questions of all economies
What goods and services should be produced
How should we produce them
For whom should we produce them
What is a traditional economy
People produce most of what they need to survive: hunting, gathering, Farming, herding, bartering
What is a market economy
Individuals answer the basic economic questions by buying and selling goods and services: businesses and industry,people earn money to buy what they need and want
What is a command economy
The government controlled the economic questions
What is a mixed economy
Individuals make some economic decisions and the government makes others: US has this economic system
What is anarchy
Absence of government
What is theocracy
Government based on religion or subject to religious authority
What is a democracy
Government based on rule of the people
What is dictatorship
Government controlled by an absolute ruler
What is aristocracy
Government based on a hereditary ruling class or nobility
What is monarchy
Government ruled by an individual with hereditary right to rule
What is communism
Government ruled by an authoritarian party that controls the economy
List the purposes of a government 5
Keep societies ordered
Provide public services
Provide for national security
Promote standards of behavior
Make economic decisions
What is a norm
A standard model or pattern
What are folkways
The ways of living thinking and acting In a human group built up without conscious design but serving as compelling guides of coduct
What are mores
Colleagues of central importance accepted without question and embodying fundamental moral views of a group
What is social control
Th enforcement of conformity by society upon its members either by law or by social pressure
What are sanctions
Authoritative permission or approval as for an action
What is material culture
Consists of all the Artifacts or physical objects humans create and give meaning to
What is nonmaterial culture
Consists of abstract human creations language ideas beliefs etc
What is b.c. or b.c.e
Before Christ before the common era
What does a.d. and c.e. mean
Anon Domini (after Christ was born) the common era
What is assimilation
Take in and accept as ones own
What is cultural shock
State of anxiety or distress do to a society radically different from one’s own
What is cultural pluralism
Condition in which numerous ethnic religious or cultural
groups are present and tolerated within a society
What is ethnocrntrism
To judge other countries by the standards of their own culture
What is diffusion
The movement of customs or ideas from one place to another
What is a subculture
A group of people within a society who share certain beliefs values and customs
What is cultural relativism
Studying another culture from its own perspective and context
What four things change a culture
Technology, environment, New ideas, diffusion