Geologic time scale- formulation of various events that transpired million of years ago in their proper perspective. At present, the world has 19 primary religions, which expand to 270 larger groups and thousand other elisions. There around 500 stories related to the origin of the Earth Religion- important aspect of individual’s life. It molds one’s being as well as his actions.
Origin beliefs- every religion’s perspective concerning the origin of the universe.Myth- denotes ideas that are fictional Creationism- creation science system of beliefs which explains that all materials in the universe were created out of absolute nothingness by a deity or one or more powerful and intelligent entities often pertains to events in Genesis as contained in the Bible or Curran Animism- earliest form of religion – belief in spirits inhabiting nature also called paganism by Westerners Monotheism- a religious belief that venerates only one god.Studies concerning creation and other planetary events For almost two millennia, the most common stories were those of Christians and Jews.
James Usher- 1650 Anglican Bishop of Armada in Ireland 4004 B. C. E. (Before Common Era), based on numerology on the Old Testament Dry.
John Lightproof- Master of SST. Catering’s College in Cambridge, England – October 23, the precise date of creation Usher-Lightproof- indicates that the age of the Earth was only 6,000 years old.Fossils- layered rock types and remains of plants ND animals Autodial Theory- 18th century attempted to explain the phenomenon concerning the discovery of fossils, remain which died during the Great Flood during the time of Noah according to the Bible Catastrophe Theory- George Xavier, early 19th century there was a series of calamities that wiped away many species. The number of creations undertaken by the Divine being had a total of 27 but others think that it was 32.James Hotpot’s concept, Unfamiliarity’s, was published in his work Theory of the Earth in 1795 Charles Eely- published Principles of Geology in 1830 to supported James Hutting. The Origin of the Earth as Explained by Science Nebular hypothesis- astronomers believe that all heavenly satellites were formed exactly at the same time and originated from the primordial materials.
Primordial proposed by Emmanuel Kant in 1755. – second was Pierre-Simon Lovelace, 1796.Solar nebula- large cloud of gases believed to be the remnants of a star which has exploded. Protons- materials which accumulate in the center of a rotating disc that heat up because of gravitation. Planetariums- asteroid found between Mars and Jupiter, which somehow failed to become a planet. 4.
6 billion ears ago- these events occurred, nebular hypothesis. – during this time sunrise to sunset lasted for 2. 5 hours. Earth’s atmosphere- 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 1% Argon as well as traces of Carbon Dioxide, and other gases.Other Scientific Theories on the Origin of the Solar System Capture Theory- based on the works of James Jean, (1877-1946) planets and their orbits came into being by the materials of the Sun pulled out by tidal forces which broke up into blobs of solar matter that later became propellants. Big Bang Theory- based on the works of George Limiter and Carl Wilhelm Wilt. The universe began tit the explosion of a primeval atom.
The universe emerged from an enormously dense and hot state nearly 14 billion years ago. George F. Smooth- presented a study supporting the Big Bang Theory. He data showed tiny temperature variations in the early period of the universe Smooth and John C. Matter- received the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physics. Steady State Theory- proposed by Fred Hole, counterproposal for Big Bang Theory new matter is created as the galaxies move away from one another.
A Brief Geological History of the Earth 4. 6 billion years ago- based on studies undertaken on the oldest rocks found in Earth, moon and asteroid. Radiometry- measures electromagnetic radiation. History of the Earth is divided into four long eras: a. Precambrian b.
Paleozoic c. Mesozoic d.Cenozoic Cambrian Explosion- the sudden appearance of animals during the Cambrian and Ordaining Period. Lesson 2 Physical Features of the Earth Solar system- composed of eight planets revolving around a massive star, the Sun. Sun- all energy are derived from it *The Earth’s Structure The Earth is composed of: a. Crust- hard and rocky part of the earth has a thickness of 30-65 kilometers underneath continents has a thickness of only 5-7 kilometers an be further divided into larges masses of land called plates b.
Mantle- underneath the crust, – a hot layer of rocks causing some of its portion to melt and become soft. . Made up of metals like iron and nickel. Inner core and outer core. Plates do not remain still. They move at a very slow rate, about less than 5 centimeters every year. Northern Hemisphere- 61% water and 39% land – called Land Hemisphere Southern Hemisphere- 81% water and only 19% land – called Water Hemisphere *Geography Geography- comes from Greek word geographic, “gee’ means land while “grapheme” means “to write.
Involves the study of the earth and people living on it. It embrace the physical features of the Earth. Globes- much more precise to use than maps.
Globes and maps- illustrate closely approximate sizes and shapes of land and water masses. *Longitude and Latitude Longitudes and Latitudes- are used to determine exact or absolute location of a place in a globe or map Longitudes- are angular distances identifiable east and west of the Prime Meridian Prime Meridian- is designated as O degrees longitude – found in Greenwich, England Latitudes- are angular distances identifiable north and south of the Equator Equator- imaginary line which divides the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Zero degree latitude.Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn *Climate *The Continents Continent- a large continuous mass of land on Earth. Seven continents Africa- abundant supply of gold and diamonds, has the largest river and largest desert, Nile River and Sahara Desert respectively Antarctica- covered with ice that reaches a thickness about 2 kilometers Asia- largest continent in the world вЂ?China- country with the largest population Australia- both a continent and a country вЂ?Oceania, includes the countries located in Micronesia, Polynesia, and MelanesiaEurope- h of the Asian land mass, two destructive World Wars started here. North America- triangular shaped continent that appears to have been slashed in two respective areas, Hudson Bay and the Gulf of Mexico South America- also triangular shaped its eastern fringes seem to fit that of the western shores of Africa Ring of Fire – the region abounds with volcanoes and their eruptions.Most Destructive earthquakes recorded China- 1556 and 1976 Sumatra- 2004 Haiti- 2010 Japan- 1923 Destructive volcanic eruptions Sauerkraut in Indonesia- 1883 Mat.
Peeled in Martinique- 1902 Vesuvius in Italy- 79 C. E History and Geography Herodotus- Father of History Eratosthenes- Father of Geography Lesson 3 The Origin of Human Kind Various beliefs in the origins of Humans Babylonians- believe their god, Maraud, created the Earth and mankind after defeating the female monster Tama.He split Titman’s body into two resulting to the Earth and Sky. Meanwhile, after defeating Titman’s husband King, Maraud then used his blood to create the humans. Mayans of Mesospheric- humans were created by the gods Tepee and Cucamonga out of corn dough. The gods first used mud and wood to fashion humans, but failed. Hindus- members belonging form different sates originated from different parts of the first man, Pursues Muslim(LULAS)- all are attributed to Allah, their only god.Hindus and Buddhists- believe creations are nothing but a series of cycles.
Jews and Christians- believe that humans were created by an almighty God Japan- gods Zamia and Aging attributed the beginnings of nation and its people China- creation began with a cosmic egg – from this egg the giant Pan-UK or Pangs was born, after his death, humans began to emerge from fleas in his hair Philippines- Mammals and Managed as the first human beings who emerged out of a bamboo pole Creationism 2 groups .New Earth Creationists- the proponents of this believed that the earth were created by God almost 10,000 years ago 2. Old Earth Creationists- proponents of this believe that the earth has existed for several billions of years Naturalistic Evolution Evolution- pertains to the various changes that take over a long time.Scientists who postulated the evolution theory Jean Baptists Lamarckian- one of the early scientists who postulated the evolution theory Alfred Russell Wallace- conducted his own study in evolution Charles Darwin- wrote On The Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection HAMS Beagle – on board the hinges in the concept of the survival of the fittest Natural Selection- process by which organisms are able to preserve themselves and reproduce by acquiring positive traits.
Paleontology, genetics, zoology and molecular biology- disciplines that favor the evolution theory Thomas Huxley- according to him, the matter concerning the exact link of humans to their closest living relatives remains to be “the question of all the questions” Anthropoids- apes, man and monkey Provisions- lemur, tarsier, pre-monkeys Knuckle walking- roaming around using his hands in walking Bipedal- being able to walk using only two feet Two groups of hominids 1 .Staphylococcus-was derived from a Latin word which means “southern ape” – Staphylococcus Africans, robust, fairness Lucy- found in Had, Ethiopia, Staphylococcus fairness 2. Homo- possessed larger brains Implements- tools Homo Habits- bipedal, handy man Homo Erects- can stand or erect Savageness Pekinese Homo Sapiens- next to Homo Erects Crop-Mignon Homo Sapiens Sapiens- modern humans Theistic Evolution- Scientific Evolution and creation science together – God created the first cells and then employed various evolutionary processes LessonPrehistory- is a period in human existence that began 2. 5 million years ago of before the invention of a system of writing Various disciplines that help reconstruct prehistory 1 . Archaeology 2. Biology 3. Botany 4.
Geology 5. Zoology Evolution- pertains to various biological changes that occur in humans Specialization- the process of gaining intelligence Dating Techniques: a. Historical documents and tools with known dates b. Ethnologically (tree dating) c.
Radiocarbon dating- half life of 5730 years d.