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-Avoid anything unholy-Why read anything but bible?Strength: concern for sanctificationWeakness: impossible1. To do (John 17:11 in the world) (not of the world)2. To achieve sanctification (col 2:20-23)Leads to monastic disinterest in culture
“All truth is God’s truth”–Can learn apart from the bible-Seeks to balance “general revelation’ with “special revelation”Strength:-Concern for transforming cultureWeakness:-Compromise both secular/bible
-Separation of Secular and sacred: work/churchStudy/bible study-Fails to see the connection between the twoStrength:-Neither isolation or integration-Clear conscience- ignoranceWeakness:-Don’t know how to live Christian life
Nature of sin
There is nothing that is intrinsically sinfulRomans 14:14 “Nothing is unclean in itself14:20 “Everything is indeed clean”Titus 1:15 “To the pure all things are pure, to the defiled and unbelieving nothing is pure”Temptations do not come from an object-They come from our desire (James 1:14)Hebrews 2:18, 4:15
Why study literature?
-Value of popular culture–Practical knowledge—-Wisdom (as well as folly) is found in the agora (marketplace) Proverbs 8-9——Prophetic function: social critiqueTitus 1:12 Paul quotes Epimenides (Pagan poet) and calls him a prophetSympathetic understanding of human struggles (1 Peter 3:15)Application of Mind of Christ (1 Cor 2:14-16)We have the mind of ChristDevelopment of Spiritual muscles (Hebrews 5:13-14)-Solid food is for the mature
How do We Approach Literature
-Critical discernment (1 Thes 5:21)-We must examine literature in the light of the scriptures (1 Cor. 2:15)1. How close does it come to the truth?2.
How far does it fall short of the truth?3. Note “truth” = the nature and the works of God and His Creation as revealed in scriptureSanctified Enjoyment (Phil 4:8)-Can’t enjoy something unless we find out what is indeed true/pure/just/lovely etc
The nature and works of God and His Creation as revealed in scripture
Historical Context: Enlightenment (1660-1770)
Problems:-Renaissance led to reformation-Cultural revolution because Europe found literature, people started to read bible.-Reformation led to:1. De-centering of central political authority2. Burden of relationship with God was placed back on individual. RCC lost power.
Need: Re-establishment of the centerCharacteristics:-“Age of Reason”- during this time the human mind was elevated to the place that the church had lost.-Elevation of mind-Learning sought in the Greco-Roman (Neo-Classics)-Emphasis on correctness (form) and moderation—-Art/lit followed certain form. Reasoning had to be logical.
Key Enlightenment Figures: Rene Descartes
-Rene Descartes (1596-1650)–Pre Cursor of the Enlightenment thinking–Rationalism—“I think therefore I am” (cogito, ergo sum)—” Indubitable” foundation in the human ability to think.
Key Enlightenment Figures: Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton (1643-1727)-Universal and invariant law of nature-“Nature and Nature’s law lay hidden in night.
God Said let there be Newton. And all was light (Alexander Pope’s poem)
Effects of Enlightenment: Political
Effects of Enlightenment: Political-Revolution!–American (1775-1783)French (1789-1779)- Get rid of tradition—-Problem: Can say we are equal, but don’t act that way.
Effects of Enlightenment: Industrial
Effects of Enlightenment: Industrial (18lth C England)-Locomotive-Result: Fuel important- coal mines needed, children used in mines.
Effects of Enlightenment: Religious
Effects of Enlightenment: Religious-Secularization- People left religion-Rationalistic religion (deism)- clock God-Art “delight and Instruct”–Enjoy but need moral lesson too
Effects of Enlightenment: Art
-Art “delight and Instruct”–Enjoy but need moral lesson too-Formalism (Neo classicalism)-Anti-realism
Goethe Johann Wolfgang von (1749-1832)
“Genius”–Man of letters: poet, dramatist, novelist and autobiographer-Statesman: Practiced law and served as diplomat-Scientist:-Influenced by Johann Gotfried Herder-“Storm and Stress movement”-Revolt against established (Neo-classical) standards-No rules in storm
-Based on legend of Faust–Christopher Marlowe’s Docter Faust (1588)–Faust seeks knowledge-Bored with science, dabbles in magicGoethe’s Faust:-Seeks experienceEnlightenment= KnowledgeRomanticism= Experience2 Parts1.
Individual; Gretchen2. Social; Helen of Troy-Individual experience left Faust miserable, so went after social experience, also didn’t work (? need to check)
Historical Context: From Enlightenment to Romanticism
-Scene in heaven–Patterned after Job 1 and 2–Unfathomable nature of GodMephisto’s View of Humanity–“Small god”-humans Genesis 3- eat and be like God-Tree of Knowledge of good and evil-You will be like God (3:5)-Humans established selves agaisnt god by making selves like God.–(mis) user of “reason”-Knowledge = power/control-Humans became an independent source of determining what is good and evil apart from God.
Overview of Faust Book 1
-Failure of the Enlightenment: Faust’s Misery-Hope in Romanticism: Faust’s Bargain-Peril of the Romanticism: Faust’s Experiences-Failure of the Romanticism: Gretchen’s Demise
Failure of the Enlightenment
-Limitations of knowledge—Does not make1.
Wise2. Provide delight3. Make one richAlternative:-Magic-MysteriesSpiritual SchemeGod Lofty/Exalted Spirit ^ -Eternal | -Creative | -Can be summoned through magic | -Not subject to human v -Romantic spirit
Problems of the Enlightenment
-Two aspects of science (Before the City Gate 240-298)-Pharmakon–Medicine–Poison-Only the healed can testifyo Paul Feyerabend “How to defend society against science”- Against method-Against result -Science done harm as well as good. Harmed can’t testify
“In the beginning was”o Word-Something that stands between human and “reality”-Not immediateo Mind-Cartesian cogito that Faust rejected-This is what enlightenment would say–But mind does not make Faust happyo Force-Occultic powero Act-Experience! – This is Faust’s desire
o Mephisto’s nature–Evil that brings out good (158-159)—The spirit that negates (161)—– No brings out yeso Mephisto’s offer – Heightening of senses (259 ff.)-Broadening of experiences (142 ff. pg 712)-When Faust satisfied -taken to devil
Faust’s Curses (58 ff.
) (9 of them)
o Esteemo Dream – Not realo Fameo Possessionso Moneyo Wineo Loveo Hope and Faitho PATIENCE
Nature of Romantic Experience
o Seeking immediate gratification (212 ff)-Reference to John 1:1 translation-“Word” requires suspension of desire(Romantic seek immediate gratification)o Forgetting the eternal (131 ff.)– “Under the Sun” perspective in Eccl.o Ignoring the consequence (163 ff) (sin is pleasure for the moment only)
University of Mephisto
Mephisto gives take on disciplineso Logic-Logic reduces and classifies-Eventually leads to death (407-8)o Metaphysics (philosophy)-Nothing more than memorization of writingo Jurisprudence (law)- Oppression of natureo Theology- Pharmakon – Medicine and poison at same time(Usually become arrogant when study theology)o Medicine-Getting a degree to take advantage of patient* Nothing is worthwhile for Mephisto
Summary so Far
o Problems of the Enlightenment -Futility of salvation through human knowledge-Epistemological (1 Cor. 2:21)-Ontological (Gen 3:5)(It is not good to be like God when you are not God. Apart from God you become some of Good and Evil)o Practical: Pharmakon (1 Cor 8:1)-Knowledge puffs upo Impossibility of attaining “higher” knowledge (sublime)-Knowledge that goes beyond common use-Impossible-Terrible- Nature is terrible, or can be(Enlightenment limited, people move to romanticism)-Move to Romanticism (Experience! Live!)-Not ideal alternative-Different problems and perils (Witch’s Kitchen)
Auerbach’s wine Cellar
o Lesson on true versus fake (Romantic) experience- Wine produces temporal delusion of freedom- Songs produce temporal illusion of joy- Being controlled by Satan without knowing ito Ephesians 5:18-19-Be filled w/ the spirit not spirits(Meph offers fake experience of Romanticism)
o Physical Rejuvenation-Can be achieved through simple living (15-24)–Requires PATIENCE and limits experience (35)Witch’s Arithmetic o Meaningless series of numberso Doctrine of trinity -Non-logical: Violates law of non-contradiction-Revelatory: (Matthew 16:17)(can’t understand w/out God)o Faust’s obsession-Image of Helen of Troy “Helen of Tory in every mind”(Potion will help Faust see beauty in all women)
o Her attraction -Not her status-Not her physical beauty-But her innocenceo His reaction- Desire beyond immediate gratification of lust- Nature of love—Eros: possessive, taking (only one that Meph understands)—Agape: Giving—Philia: reciprocal, receiving, love of friendship (Romantic’s desire)
Final Condemnation of the Enlightenment
o Scholarship as a lieo Experience is superior to wisdom
Loss of Innocence (Gretchen’s mom)
o Innocence when experienced loses its innocence (flower cut)o Loss of peaceo Pain
Faust’s Theology (Martha’s Garden)
o No faith- Does not condemn church but he has no personal faith- Religion is ritualistic- No meaning behind it.
o Ritualistico No personal god (Pantheistic)- No name- Feelingo No Christianity
Degenerating Pattern of Sin—James 1:15
“Desire when conceived gives birth to sin”o Conception (At the well)o Birth (Night)o Deatho Accusation (cathedral)
o Legend- Spring Fest on May 1st-Celebration of St. Walpurgis-Mixed w/ Pagan festival-Gathering of witches to meet the devil of Brockeno Scene-Walpurgis night-Encounter w/ demonic characterso Walpurgis Nights Dream-Play within the play (escapism)o Shakespearean (Inspired by: A Midnight Summer’s Dream and Tempest)
Significance of Walpurgis Night
o Escape-From reality(Meph says leave reality alone)- Failure of the Romanticism-Consequence of the failureo Into the world of entertainment-Sensory confusion-Violence-Sexual perversion-Novelty – Something new and differento Forgetting-Note the time lapse between this scene and the nexto Dismal Day 8-( One year between Walpurgis night and now- Gretchen drowns baby put in prison)- Meph entertaining Faust-Faust accuses Meph of deceiving
o Will-o-wisp- Ignis Fatuus- Symbol of misguided patho Mammon- Personification of money and greedo Baubo- Demeter’s nurse(Demeter= Persophenes mother)Baubo makes Demeter laugh- Vulgarity and obscenityo Huckster- Witch- Shoppingo Lilith (1st wife w/ Adam, became ghost when Eve came)–Fornication and adultryo Proktophantasmist- Rhump- ghostler(If ill, had bad blood. Dr.
drain blood w/ leeches on rhump)o Charactertures of Friedrich Nicolai-Contemporary of Goethe-Defender of Enlightenment-Opposed storm and stress movement and Goethe
-Search for the lost (prelapsarian) innocence- Once the innocent is experienced it is no longer innocent- Nature and culture (flower in Dungeon)- Surrogate nature (virtual reality)(we can have fake and not deal w/ reality, but we prefer reality)-Negative-Desire for the real